Summary of Archaeological Findings
A huge settlement was found at the location we chose for our archeological dig.
- The settlement was well fortified. There were towers to the west of the main settlement and defensive fortifications to the south.
- The settlement was divided into two parts. The area near the fortress included an elaborate bathing facility created with fine quality brickwork and drains; this was surrounded by a porch. Nearby were a giant granary, a large residential structure, and at least two aisled assembly halls. To the east of the fortress was the lower region of the settlement. Smaller buildings were excavated in the lower region. The streets were straight and had drains to keep the area sanitary.
- The foundations and crumbling walls of thousands of brick houses were identified. Larger houses had interior courtyards and as many as three stories. All houses, even the small ones east of the fortress, had bathrooms that were connected to sewers.
- Terra-cotta statues of a “Mother Goddess” were discovered in the ruins of nearly every home.
- Potter’s kilns, dyer’s vats, bead making, and shell-working shops were identified.
- The remains of furnaces provided evidence that several metals such as bronze, lead and tin were produced.
- Pieces of fine jewelry –rings, bracelets, and necklaces– were uncovered. Some were crafted out of gold from southern India; others out of copper from Afghanistan. Some were set with stones like jade, also from southern India and turquoise from Persia.
- A large number of weights all belonging to a uniform system were found throughout the settlement.
- Irrigation and flood control systems were discovered.
- Bones of animals were unearthed including dogs and cats, humped cattle, buffaloes, possibly pigs, camels, and horses.
- A large number of human figurines were discovered, including a soapstone figure of a man thought to be a priest and a dancing girl made out of bronze.
- Other figurines show that people within the settlement often wore different styles of dress and hair, some much more elaborate than others.
- Figures carved into seals depict gods and goddesses in both male and female forms.
- Nearly 4,000 specimens of a script were found carved on stones, fragments of pottery, and other objects.
- In addition to human skeletons, personal items like amulets and simple pottery were recovered from a few burial grounds.
- Bowls, beads and other ornaments were made of metals not obtainable in the region.
- Remnants of carts with wooden wheels and single-mast ships were found near the river.